The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study

The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

The restoring and maximising of well-being in individuals disadvantaged or traumatised by physical, neurological, psychological or social causes therefore becomes a significant issue for all professionals whether in life, social or information sciences. This poster presents a review of the literature to establish a prima facie case for investigating the role of the prefrontal cortex in predetermining outcomes of the with medicalised social orientation impairments such as autism, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, ADHD, as well as problems relating to occupation health and substance misuse. The characteristics of the pre-frontal cortex are identified from a number of journals and then these terms cross references with those impairments. Anseries of equations are presented on how one might look at representing differences in the pre-frontal cortex by using a post-cognitivist psychology paradigm to represent the psycho-analytical concepts of ‘phantasies’ in a manner that allows for use in questionnaire, statistical analysis, and information system adaptation.

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The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study

Summary of Conclusions

  • It is emotional dysfunction in the brain that causes most people to be autistic and not them having ‘autism’
  • Someone becomes autistic through a sub-optimal prefrontal cortex which affects working memory, among other factors.
  • A prefrontal cortex can become sub-optimal through lack of brain function to handle social and emotional stressors, such as might be caused by brain injuries such as hippocampal sclerosis
  • It can also become sub-optimal through traumatic abuse, including allergic reactions to vaccines, sex abuse, traumatic birth.
  • Finally, a sub-optimal pre-frontal cortex can come about through genetic mutations in it.
  • The degree of impairment in the prefrontal cortex can be measured through simple alpha and beta brain imaging tools

References

Bishop, J. (2011). The role of the prefrontal cortex in social orientation construction: A pilot study. Poster presented to the British Psychological Society’s Sustainable Well-Being Conference. Glyndwr University, Wrexham, 10 September 2011. Available online at: http://www.jonathanbishop.com/Library/Documents/EN/docBPSSWPoster.pdf

The Role of Augmented E-Learning Systems for Enhancing Pro-Social Behaviour in Socially Impaired Individuals

The Role of Augmented E-Learning Systems for Enhancing Pro-Social Behaviour in Socially Impaired Individuals

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

E-learning systems generally rely on good visual and cognitive abilities, making them suitable for individuals with good levels of intelligence in these areas. A group of such individuals are those with non-systemising impairments (NSIs), such as people with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). These individuals could benefit greatly from technology that allows them to use their abilities to overcome their impairments in social and emotional functioning in order to develop pro-social behaviours. Existing systems such as PARLE and MindReading are discussed, and a new one, the Visual Ontological Imitation System (VOIS), is proposed and discussed. This chapter details an investigation into the acceptability of these systems by those working in social work and advocacy. The study found that VOIS would be well received, although dependency on assistive technology and its impact on how others view NSIs still need to be addressed by society and its institutions.

References

Bishop, J. (2011). The Role of Augmented E-Learning Systems for Enhancing Pro-Social Behaviour in Socially Impaired Individuals. In Lau Bee Theng (Ed.) Assistive and Augmentive Communication for the Disabled: Intelligent Technologies for Communication, Learning and Teaching. New York: IGI Global.

Glamorgan graduate nominated for award

A University of Glamorgan graduate has been nominated for an award for using mobile phones to teach people with autism and social phobia. Jonathan Bishop, of Heol-y-Parc, Efail Isaf, has been nominated for the New Statesman Bright Sparks award in the special educational needs category. The award will go to the product or project that best removes the barriers to achievement faced by people with special educational needs.

Mr Bishop’s entry uses mobile phones to teach the meaning of emotions and common phrases individuals with autism and social phobia while they are participating in social situations.

Dr Mike Reddy, of the University of Glamorgan, who supervised the project said that the system, named PARLE, could be effective at helping people with autism take part in social situations. He said: “What is deeply significant about this work is that it would serve to be inclusive, rather than attaching social stigma to participation in a social situation because of the innovative use of mobile phones.”

Research on the system carried out at the University of Glamorgan has already been published in an international journal, but as Mr Bishop explains, more is necessary to determine the system’s usefulness. “We were only able to test a small part of the system two years ago, but new research methodologies mean we can now get a complete picture of how people benefit from the system.” Mr Bishop is looking for volunteers to take part in the new study. If you have a form of autism such as Asperger Syndrome, any type of social phobia or are someone interested in learning more about emotions you can get in touch via Mr Bishop’s web site at http://www.jonathanbishop.org.uk/parle.

The Internet for educating indviduals with social impairments

The Internet for educating individuals with social impairments

Jonathan Bishop

Abstract

Social impairments materialise in a number of forms, from developmental disabilities such as autistic spectrum disorder, to psychiatric conditions such as social phobia. The individuals diagnosed with these problems find it difficult to deal with social situations through either the inability to perform in these situations or the fear of not being able to do so. The study investigated the social and practical implications of using Mobile Internet technology to deliver information relating to a social situation in real-time to participants with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (n = 10) and General Social Phobia (n = 3) diagnosed using DSM-IV. The participants used the agent on their mobile phone to convert phrases they found offensive or confusing into more concise and understandable definitions. Analysing their attitudes found that the technology enables socially impaired individuals to learn the meaning of emotions and understand more about how they communicate with their peers. However, the study concludes that governmental organisations, education providers and society as a whole need to adopt a cohesive approach to communication to ensure socially impaired individuals are fully included in society

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The Internet for educating individuals with social impairments

Reference

J. Bishop (2003). The Internet for educating individuals with social impairments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 19(4), pp. 546-556. Available online at: http://www.jonathanbishop.com/Library/Documents/EN/docCS4S06Paper.pdf